parser

TODO: Document this code. The repository is located at https://github.com/asaparov/parser.

This code implements the experiments as described in this paper. It uses a generative model of semantic grammar, which is implemented as a separate modular repository grammar (the parsing and MCMC sampling algorithm are implemented there).

If you use this code in your research, please cite:

Abulhair Saparov, Vijay Saraswat, and Tom M. Mitchell. 2017. A Probabilistic Generative Grammar for Semantic Parsing. In Proceedings of the 21st Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2017).

Dependencies

To use the code, simply download the files and build the desired program with either make datalog_to_lambda or make parser.

This library depends on core, math, hdp, and grammar. The code makes use of C++11 and is regularly tested with gcc 6 but I have previously compiled it with gcc 4.8, clang 4.0, and Microsoft Visual C++ 14.0 (2015). The code is intended to be platform-independent, so please create an issue if there are any compilation bugs.

Code structure

This repository implements two logical formalisms: lambda-calculus in lambda.h and Datalog in datalog.h. A prior distribution Datalog logical forms is defined in datalog_hdp.h.

There are two datasets: GeoQuery and Jobs, located in geoquery/ and jobs/, respectively. Each directory contains training data, test data, domain-specific lexicons, ontologies, and trained grammars (models).

Programs

There are two programs in this repository.

Command-line option

Description

--train=<filepath>

The path to the training data. (required in all modes)

--extra=<filepath>

The path to an extra dataset. In sample mode, this is the lexicon. We provide a domain-general lexicon in lexicon, as well as lexicons in geoquery/geoqueries880_lexicon and jobs/jobqueries640_lexicon. In parse mode, this a set of additional logical forms that will be used to train the semantic prior (in addition to the logical forms from the training data).

--kb=<filepath>

The path to a set of "beliefs" which are also used to train the semantic prior (in addition to the logical forms from the training data). We provide a set of beliefs for GeoQuery in geoquery/geoqueries880_beliefs. This option is only used in parse mode.

--test=<filepath>

The path to the test data. In parse mode, the program will attempt to parse each sentence in the test set, comparing the output to the logical form label. In generate mode, the algorithm will attempt to generate sentences/questions for every logical form in the test set. (required in parse and generate modes)

--model=<filepath>

The path to the model (the file in which the grammar will be stored). In sample mode, this is the path to which the trained grammar will be written to. We provide trained models in geoquery/model_no_lexicon, geoquery/model_with_lexicon, jobs/model_no_lexicon, and jobs/model_with_lexicon. (required in all modes)

--ontology=<filepath>

The path to the ontology. We provide ontologies in geoquery/geoqueries880_types and jobs/jobqueries640_types.

--grammar=<filepath>

The path to a file that specifies the nonterminals, "interior" production rules, and hyperparameters of the grammar. The default path is english.gram. This option is only used in sample mode, since its information will be saved into the model.

--iterations=<count>

The number of MCMC iterations with which to train the grammar. This option is only used in sample mode. The default is 10.

--time-limit=<milliseconds>

The time limit in milliseconds during parsing of each sentence. The default is -1 which indicates no time limit. This option is only used in parse mode.

--threads=<count>

The number of threads with which to perform parsing. The default is 1. This option is only used in parse mode.

--no-morphology

Disables morphological modeling of words. See README and morphology.h in grammar.

--test-parseable

If enabled, the parser will first iterate over each example in the training set. It will check whether the logical form can indeed be derived according to the derivation tree that was learned during sampling. This option is helpful for debugging logical form representations, and is only used in parse mode.

Experiments

To reproduce the experiments in the paper, the following commands may be run.

To test semantic parser on GeoQuery, without lexicon, without type-checking:

./parser parse --train=geoquery/geoqueries880_train --extra=geoquery/geoqueries880_train_remaining --test=geoquery/geoqueries880_test --model=geoquery/model_no_lexicon --no-morphology

To test semantic parser on GeoQuery, with lexicon, without type-checking:

./parser parse --train=geoquery/geoqueries880_train --extra=geoquery/geoqueries880_train_remaining --test=geoquery/geoqueries880_test --kb=geoquery/geoqueries880_beliefs --model=geoquery/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology

To test semantic parser on GeoQuery, without lexicon, with type-checking:

./parser parse --train=geoquery/geoqueries880_train --extra=geoquery/geoqueries880_train_remaining --test=geoquery/geoqueries880_test --ontology=geoquery/geoqueries880_types --model=geoquery/model_no_lexicon --no-morphology

To test semantic parser on GeoQuery, with lexicon, with type-checking:

./parser parse --train=geoquery/geoqueries880_train --extra=geoquery/geoqueries880_train_remaining --test=geoquery/geoqueries880_test --kb=geoquery/geoqueries880_beliefs --ontology=geoquery/geoqueries880_types --model=geoquery/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology

To test semantic parser on Jobs, without lexicon, without type checking:

./parser parse --train=jobs/jobqueries640_train --extra=jobs/jobqueries640_train_remaining --test=jobs/jobqueries640_test --model=jobs/model_no_lexicon --no-morphology

To test semantic parser on Jobs, with lexicon, without type checking:

./parser parse --train=jobs/jobqueries640_train --extra=jobs/jobqueries640_train_remaining --test=jobs/jobqueries640_test --model=jobs/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology

To test semantic parser on Jobs, without lexicon, with type checking:

./parser parse --train=jobs/jobqueries640_train --extra=jobs/jobqueries640_train_remaining --test=jobs/jobqueries640_test --ontology=jobs/jobqueries640_types --model=jobs/model_no_lexicon --no-morphology

To test semantic parser on Jobs, with lexicon, with type checking:

./parser parse --train=jobs/jobqueries640_train --extra=jobs/jobqueries640_train_remaining --test=jobs/jobqueries640_test --ontology=jobs/jobqueries640_types --model=jobs/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology

Training

Although we provide the trained grammar (model files) to run the above commands, the grammar can be trained using the following commands.

To train semantic parser using GeoQuery, with lexicon:

./parser sample --train=geoquery/geoqueries880_train --extra=geoquery/geoqueries880_lexicon --ontology=geoquery/geoqueries880_types --model=geoquery/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology

To train semantic parser using GeoQuery, without lexicon:

./parser sample --train=geoquery/geoqueries880_train --extra=lexicon --ontology=geoquery/geoqueries880_types --model=geoquery/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology

To train semantic parser using Jobs, with lexicon:

./parser sample --train=jobs/jobqueries640_train --extra=jobs/jobqueries640_lexicon --ontology=jobs/jobqueries640_types --model=jobs/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology

To train semantic parser using Jobs, without lexicon:

./parser sample --train=jobs/jobqueries640_train --extra=lexicon --ontology=jobs/jobqueries640_types --model=jobs/model_with_lexicon --no-morphology